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Research Needs in Infant and Toddler Populations


This review confirms the scant available information on the validity and measurement error for the FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire), DH (Diet History), and FRs (Food Records) in infant and toddler populations. Validation studies on the 24HR (24-Hour Recall) and on methods to assess supplement intake are lacking. Validation studies using larger and more representative populations, similar methodologies, and that examine the impact of gender, ethnicity or infant age on the validity of infant and toddler feeding measures are needed. Scanlon et al. identified the need for a comprehensive study that evaluates multiple measures of infant feeding simultaneously (78). The reliability of test weighing and the DLW (Doubly Labeled Water) method in representative population samples also should be evaluated. As in all age groups, the further use of biomarkers to evaluate accuracy of subjective self-report methods is needed. The impact of social desirability on reporting on infant intake should be examined, especially with regard to reporting important parenting behaviors such as infant feeding. In addition, research is needed on the impact of parental BMI (Body-Mass Index), education, and ethnicity on reporting validity. Finally more work is needed to validate portion size estimating aides (126). In a longitudinal study, the timing and frequency of dietary assessment in infants and toddlers should be examined.

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Last Modified: 11 Apr 2014