Authors: Lu-Yao G, Albertsen PC, Stanford JL, Stukel TA, Walker-Corkery E, Barry MJ
Title: Screening, treatment, and prostate cancer mortality in the Seattle area and Connecticut: fifteen-year follow-up.
Journal: J Gen Intern Med 23(11):1809-14
Date: 2008 Nov
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prior to introduction of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, the Seattle-Puget Sound and Connecticut Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) areas had similar prostate cancer mortality rates. Early in the PSA era (1987-1990), men in the Seattle area were screened and treated more intensively for prostate cancer than men in Connecticut. OBJECTIVE: We previously reported more intensive screening and treatment early in the PSA era did not lower prostate cancer mortality through 11 years and now extend follow-up to 15 years. DESIGN: Natural experiment comparing two fixed population-based cohorts. SUBJECTS: Male Medicare beneficiaries ages 65-79 from the Seattle (N = 94,900) and Connecticut (N = 120,621) SEER areas, followed from 1987-2001. MEASUREMENTS: Rates of prostate cancer screening; treatment with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, and androgen deprivation therapy; and prostate cancer-specific mortality. MAIN RESULTS: The 15-year cumulative incidences of radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy through 2001 were 2.84% and 6.02%, respectively, for Seattle cohort members, compared to 0.56% and 5.07% for Connecticut cohort members (odds ratio 5.20, 95% confidence interval 3.22 to 8.42 for surgery and odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.58 for radiation). The cumulative incidence of androgen deprivation therapy from 1991-2001 was 4.78% for Seattle compared to 6.13% for Connecticut (odds ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.87). The adjusted rate ratio of prostate cancer mortality through 2001 was 1.02 (95% C.I. 0.96 to 1.09) in Seattle versus Connecticut. CONCLUSION: Among men aged 65 or older, more intensive prostate cancer screening early in the PSA era and more intensive treatment particularly with radical prostatectomy over 15 years of follow-up were not associated with lower prostate cancer-specific mortality.