Authors: Nebeling LC, Forman MR, Graubard BI, Snyder RA
Title: Changes in carotenoid intake in the United States: the 1987 and 1992 National Health Interview Surveys.
Journal: J Am Diet Assoc 97(9):991-6
Date: 1997 Sep
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To assess the changes in carotenoid intake between 1987 and 1992 among US adults by sociodemographic characteristics and high-risk groups for chronic disease; and to identify the dietary sources of specific carotenoid intake. DESIGN: A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was collected from a representative sample of respondents to the 1987 and 1992 National Health Interview Surveys throughout two calendar quarters. Black and white adults, 18 to 69 years old, participated in 1987 (n = 8,161) and 1992 (n = 8,341). METHOD: FFQ data were matched and linked to the US Department of Agriculture-National Cancer Institute carotenoid food composition database for analysis. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Mean differences in carotenoid intake over time were compared by sociodemographic characteristics and region of the country, after adjustment for sampling weights in a multiple linear regression model. RESULTS: Mean intake of the carotenoid lutein declined among white women (18%), among adults aged 40 to 69 years (16%), among persons with 9 to 12 years of education (11%), among nondrinkers (18%), among drinkers of 1 to 6 alcoholic drinks/ week (7%), among smokers (former smokers by 11%, current smokers by 7%, and never smokers by 9%), among income groups (< $20,000 by 7%, > or = $20,000 by 9%), and residents in the south and northeast (by 13% each, respectively). Mean intake of the carotenoid lycopene increased among white men (9%), among adults aged 18 to 39 years and aged 40 to 69 years (by 5% and 6%, respectively), among those with 13 years of education or more (12.5%), among alcohol drinkers (by 10% and 7% for 1 to 6 vs 7 or more drinks/week, respectively), among former and current smokers (by 6% each), among those with incomes > or = $20,000 (8%), and among residents in the west (16%) and midwest (5%). All differences described were statistically significant (P < .01). APPLICATION: The decline in lutein intake (from dark green leafy vegetables), particularly in white women, may have public health implications as a result of the recognized inverse association between carotenoid intake and disease risk.