Authors: Wallace MB, Nietert PJ, Earle C, Krasna MJ, Hawes RH, Hoffman BJ, Reed CE
Title: An analysis of multiple staging management strategies for carcinoma of the esophagus: computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasound, positron emission tomography, and thoracoscopy/laparoscopy.
Journal: Ann Thorac Surg 74(4):1026-32
Date: 2002 Oct
Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study compares the health care costs and effectiveness of multiple staging options for patients with esophageal cancer. Techniques studied included computed tomographic (CT) scan, endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA), positron emission tomography (PET), thoracoscopy/laparoscopy, and combinations of these. METHODS: A decision-analysis model was constructed to compare different staging strategies. Costs were derived from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked databases and from other Medicare reimbursement rates. Life expectancies were obtained from the 1973-1996 SEER database and adjusted for quality of life. Cost and effectiveness measures were discounted at 0% and 3% per year. Sensitivity and specificity measures were obtained from the published literature and a parallel prospective clinical trial, and all key variables were subjected to sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Under baseline assumptions, CT + EUS-FNA was the most inexpensive strategy and offered more quality-adjusted life-years, on average, than all other strategies with the exception of PET + EUS-FNA. The latter was slightly more effective but also more expensive. The marginal cost-effectiveness ratio for PET + EUS-FNA was $60,544 per quality-adjusted life-year. These findings were robust and changed very little in all of the sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of PET + EUS-FNA should be the recommended staging procedure for patients with esophageal cancer, unless resources are scarce or PET is unavailable. In these instances, CT + EUS-FNA can be considered the preferred strategy.