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Five-Factor Screener: Scoring Procedures

How Analytical Scoring Procedures Were Developed

Scoring procedures were developed to convert a respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables (servings), fiber (gm), added sugar (tsp), calcium (mg), and dairy (servings) using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data. The following equations were estimated in the CSFII 94-96:

For fiber and calcium:

E (Dietary Factor) = b0 + b1 (NFG1P1 + b2NFG2P2 + … + b20NFG20P20)

E (Dietary Factor) indicates the expected values for fiber and calcium, and assumes a normal distribution. In the CSFII 94-96 dataset fiber was positively skewed and required a cube-root transformation to approximate normality. Calcium required a quarter-root transformation. NFGk is the usual number of times per day an individual consumed food group k; Pk is the median portion size of group k; and k indexes the 20 food groups. These 20 food groups were formed to reflect the same food groups on the screener. We calculated weighted least-squares estimates of the regression coefficients bk, k = 0, …, 20 on CSFII 94-96 adults aged 18 and above, stratifying by gender and excluding extreme exposure values. We first included all 20 food groups in the regression model. After examining the results, we dropped food groups that failed to attain statistical significance at the α = 0.25 level to form more parsimonious final models. In the fiber model, salad and soda were dropped for women. In the calcium model, all foods attained statistical significance. Because of the complex survey design, the analysis was performed using SUDAAN (RTI Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC).

For servings of fruits and vegetables:

E ([Fruits and Veg]1/2) = b0 + b1 ([NFG1P1 + NFG2P2 + … + NFG9P9]1/2)

Servings of fruits and vegetables was square-root-transformed to approximate normality; NFGk is the usual number of times per day an individual consumed food group k; Pk is the median portion size of group k; and k indexes the 9 fruit and vegetable food groups. We calculated weighted least-squares estimates of the regression coefficients b0 and b1 on the adults in the CSFII 94-96 sample, stratifying by gender and excluding extreme exposure values.

For teaspoons of added sugar:

E ([Added Sugar].33) = b0 + b1 ([NFG1P1 + NFG2P2 + … + NFG4P4].33)

Teaspoons of added sugar was cube-root-transformed to approximate normality; NFGk is the usual number of times per day an individual consumed food group k; Pk is the median portion size of group k; and k indexes the 4 added sugar food groups. We calculated weighted least-squares estimates of the regression coefficients b0 and b1 on the adults in the CSFII 94-96 sample, stratifying by gender and excluding extreme exposure values.

For servings of dairy:

E ([Dairy]1/2) = b0 + b1 ([NFG1P1 + NFG2P2]1/2)

Servings of dairy was square-root-transformed to approximate normality; NFGk is the usual number of times per day an individual consumed food group k; Pk is the median portion size of group k; and k indexes the 2 dairy food groups. We calculated weighted least-squares estimates of the regression coefficients b0 and b1 on the adults in the CSFII 94-96 sample, stratifying by gender and excluding extreme exposure values.

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Scoring Procedures

We performed the following steps with the NHIS 2005 Cancer Control Supplement dietary data to estimate the individual's intake of servings of fruits and vegetables, fiber, added sugar, calcium, and servings of dairy.

  1. Estimation of NFGk: All reported frequencies were standardized to a common unit of time by converting them to daily frequencies.
    Frequency Response NFGk: Daily Frequency
    Never 0
    1-3 times per month 0.067
    1-2 times per week 0.214
    3-4 times per week 0.5
    5-6 times per week 0.786
    1 time per day 1
    2 times per day 2
    3 times per day 3
    4 times per day 4
    5 or more times per day 5
  2. Estimation of Pk: The median age- and gender-specific portion sizes for each food were estimated from CSFII 94-96. For fiber and calcium variables, the units were in grams (Tables 1-2); for fruit and vegetable servings variables, the units were in Pyramid servings of fruits and vegetables (Tables 3a & 3b); for dairy servings, the unit was Pyramid servings of dairy (Table 4); and for teaspoons of added sugar, the unit was Pyramid teaspoons of added sugar (Table 5).

    For fruit and vegetables, a Pyramid serving was defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in the 1992 Dietary Guidelines Food Guide Pyramid as:

    • vegetables: 1 cup raw leafy, 1/2 cup of other vegetables, or 3/4 cup vegetable juice; and
    • fruit: 1 whole fruit, 1/2 cup of cut-up fruit, or 3/4 cup fruit juice.

    More recently, the 2005 Dietary Guidelines measure fruits and vegetables in cup equivalents. See MyPyramid for definitions of cup equivalents.

    Both metrics are provided for these 2005 data.

    For the milk group, a Pyramid serving is defined as:

    • 1 cup of milk or yogurt;
    • 1½ ounces of natural cheese; and
    • 2 ounces of processed cheese.

    For added sugar, a Pyramid serving is 1 teaspoon.

    Table 1. Median Portion Size (Pk) in Grams per Mention by Age for Fiber and Calcium Analyses: Men
    Food Group Age Group
    18-27 28-37 38-47 48-57 58-67 68-77 78-99
    Cooked Cereals (P1) 354.000000 219.630000 247.000000 247.000000 234.000000 239.000000 234.000000
    High-fiber Cereal (P2) 33.000000 33.000000 33.000000 33.000000 22.000000 22.000000 22.000000
    Moderate-fiber cereal (P3) 84.000000 66.000000 58.000000 64.125000 50.000000 47.000000 39.000000
    Low-fiber cereal (P4) 64.000000 54.000000 54.000000 40.625000 40.000000 30.375000 29.000000
    Milk (P5) 325.333333 268.400000 274.500000 244.000000 233.833333 206.000000 183.000000
    Regular Soda (P6) 453.866667 372.000000 372.000000 372.000000 370.200000 368.400000 368.000000
    Fruit Drinks (P7) 480.000000 376.500000 378.265000 372.000000 306.000000 248.000000 248.000000
    Fruit Juice (P8) 372.000000 311.250000 249.000000 249.000000 248.000000 186.750000 186.750000
    Fruit (P9) 131.750000 128.000000 123.200000 127.500000 122.000000 118.000000 114.250000
    Salad (P10) 30.000000 47.833333 42.500000 41.250000 42.500000 41.250000 44.666667
    French fries (P11) 112.500000 114.000000 100.000000 100.000000 85.500000 85.500000 97.000000
    Other potatoes (P12) 210.000000 193.000000 193.000000 161.000000 150.000000 127.000000 113.250000
    Dried beans (P13) 222.500000 188.095000 178.000000 189.750000 226.800000 199.333333 214.000000
    Other vegetables (P14) 61.250000 74.166667 75.625000 81.666667 76.000000 73.332500 70.000000
    Tomato sauce (P15) 63.000000 125.000000 125.000000 156.250000 122.500000 125.000000 125.000000
    Salsa (P16) 62.250000 62.250000 49.275000 43.875000 16.000000 31.130000 31.130000
    Whole Grain Bread (P17) 56.000000 54.000000 52.000000 52.000000 51.000000 48.250000 48.000000
    Doughnuts, sweet rolls, muffins (P18) 71.000000 77.500000 72.800000 65.000000 63.000000 57.000000 57.000000
    Cookies, pie, cake, brownies (P19) 64.000000 66.000000 66.000000 73.733333 67.500000 64.000000 61.000000
     Cheese (P20) 35.440000 28.350000 30.470000 29.390000 28.350000 28.350000 28.350000
    Table 2. Median Portion Size (Pk) in Grams per Mention by Age for Fiber and Calcium Analyses: Women
    Food Group Age Group
    18-27 28-37 38-47 48-57 58-67 68-77 78-99
    Cooked Cereals (P1) 234.000000 234.000000 234.000000 234.000000 226.800000 234.000000 227.475000
    High-fiber Cereal (P2) 42.750000 42.750000 42.750000 42.750000 27.970000 27.970000 27.970000
    Moderate-fiber cereal (P3) 60.000000 57.000000 53.000000 49.500000 42.000000 39.083333 40.000000
    Low-fiber cereal (P4) 46.500000 37.500000 36.250000 33.000000 27.000000 26.000000 25.000000
    Milk (P5) 244.000000 244.000000 244.000000 214.250000 183.750000 183.000000 183.000000
    Regular Soda (P6) 372.000000 372.000000 370.200000 368.400000 330.666667 366.000000 368.200000
    Fruit Drinks (P7) 360.000000 341.000000 250.000000 250.000000 248.000000 240.000000 221.200000
    Fruit Juice (P8) 280.125000 249.000000 248.800000 233.250000 189.755000 186.600000 186.700000
    Fruit (P9) 118.000000 118.000000 118.000000 118.000000 118.000000 112.427143 109.000000
    Salad (P10) 33.750000 32.083333 47.000000 55.000000 43.750000 34.333333 41.250000
    French fries (P11) 79.500000 70.000000 70.000000 70.000000 66.000000 70.000000 64.000000
    Other potatoes (P12) 122.000000 127.000000 119.000000 113.000000 105.000000 105.000000 105.000000
    Dried beans (P13) 132.750000 126.500000 126.500000 141.750000 130.550000 172.000000 178.000000
    Other vegetables (P14) 56.000000 62.043333 64.415000 64.920000 65.000000 67.375000 71.333333
    Tomato sauce (P15) 125.000000 113.400000 62.500000 125.000000 62.500000 62.500000 62.500000
    Salsa (P16) 32.000000 31.130000 36.565000 27.847500 31.130000 16.000000 16.000000
    Whole Grain Bread (P17) 50.000000 48.000000 47.500000 45.000000 45.000000 42.400000 34.000000
    Doughnuts, sweet rolls, muffins (P18) 67.333333 58.000000 57.000000 58.500000 57.000000 59.000000 47.000000
    Cookies, pie, cake, brownies (P19) 56.700000 50.000000 48.800000 55.200000 57.000000 48.675000 52.666667
     Cheese (P20) 28.250000 24.000000 24.000000 26.250000 28.350000 26.250000 28.350000
    Table 3a. Median Portion Size (Pk) in Pyramid Servings* per Mention by Gender and Age for Fruits and Vegetables Analyses
    Food Group Age Group
    18-27 28-37 38-47 48-57 58-67 68-77 78-99
    Men
    100% fruit juice (P1) 2.000000 1.667500 1.335000 1.335000 1.334000 1.001000 1.001000
    Fruit (P2) 1.301000 1.301000 1.229571 1.227333 1.168000 1.168000 1.052333
    Salad (P3) 0.545000 0.708000 0.754500 0.750000 0.833500 0.750000 0.822500
    Fried potatoes (P4) 2.000000 2.000000 1.773000 1.710000 1.400000 1.250000 1.250000
    Other potatoes (P5) 2.000000 2.000000 1.999000 1.999000 1.914000 1.544000 1.508000
    Dried beans (P6) 1.374000 1.047000 1.065000 1.227000 1.000000 1.000000 1.114000
    Other Vegetables (P7) 0.750000 0.906000 0.974500 1.000000 1.000000 0.880000 0.833333
    Tomato sauce (P8) 0.500000 0.541000 0.541000 0.812000 0.541000 0.541000 0.541000
    Salsa (P9) 0.533000 0.533000 0.421500 0.386500 0.137000 0.266000 0.266000
    Women
    100% fruit juice (P1) 1.500500 1.334000 1.334000 1.251250 1.019500 1.000500 1.000500
    Fruit (P2) 1.168000 1.168000 1.168000 1.168000 1.150500 1.083833 1.000000
    Salad (P3) 0.613500 0.572500 0.833333 1.000000 0.795500 0.625000 0.750000
    Fried potatoes (P4) 1.481000 1.365500 1.272000 1.400000 1.000000 1.026000 1.000000
    Other white potatoes (P5) 1.544000 1.544000 1.528000 1.544000 1.499000 1.516000 1.272000
    Dried beans (P6) 0.964000 0.684000 0.800000 0.687000 0.822000 0.807000 1.000000
    Other Vegetables (P7) 0.702200 0.779333 0.792500 0.788500 0.774000 0.833000 0.856750
    Tomato sauce (P8) 0.541000 0.541000 0.273000 0.541000 0.500000 0.500000 0.500000
    Salsa (P9) 0.274000 0.266000 0.322500 0.238250 0.266000 0.137000 0.137000
    Table 3b. Median Portion Size (Pk) in Cup Servings** per Mention by Gender and Age for Fruits and Vegetables Analyses
    Food Group Age Group
    18-27 28-37 38-47 48-57 58-67 68-77 78-99
    Men
    100% fruit juice (P1) 1.499160 1.250580 1.000980 1.000980 1.000176 0.750735 0.750735
    Fruit (P2) 0.999580 0.933450 0.867300 0.867300 0.867300 0.774916 0.657060
    Salad (P3) 0.272700 0.353970 0.377235 0.374963 0.416640 0.375000 0.411323
    Fried potatoes (P4) 0.721125 0.727700 0.641000 0.641000 0.548055 0.480750 0.499980
    Other potatoes (P5) 1.000400 1.140030 0.999600 0.999600 0.999490 0.833175 0.754400
    Dried beans (P6) 0.717550 0.551540 0.566720 0.612360 0.500250 0.502285 0.575360
    Other Vegetables (P7) 0.387675 0.473920 0.499840 0.500240 0.499905 0.460585 0.416899
    Tomato sauce (P8) 0.249900 0.271250 0.271250 0.406875 0.271250 0.271250 0.271250
    Salsa (P9) 0.266430 0.266430 0.210897 0.195683 0.068480 0.133236 0.133236
    Women
    100% fruit juice (P1) 1.124370 1.000960 1.000176 0.938130 0.764776 0.750728 0.750434
    Fruit (P2) 0.749235 0.867300 0.844838 0.789970 0.742350 0.712640 0.620475
    Salad (P3) 0.306788 0.286335 0.416625 0.499950 0.397688 0.312469 0.374963
    Fried potatoes (P4) 0.509595 0.455110 0.448700 0.448700 0.394856 0.444260 0.444260
    Other white potatoes (P5) 0.782020 0.876945 0.771260 0.771260 0.749700 0.771260 0.644235
    Dried beans (P6) 0.492150 0.341550 0.430530 0.345763 0.430685 0.430530 0.500400
    Other Vegetables (P7) 0.364468 0.395882 0.404303 0.408330 0.416913 0.436560 0.452214
    Tomato sauce (P8) 0.271250 0.271250 0.136710 0.271250 0.249900 0.249900 0.249900
    Salsa (P9) 0.136960 0.133236 0.163080 0.119187 0.133236 0.068480 0.068480
    Table 4. Median Portion Size (Pk) in Pyramid Servings* per Mention by Gender and Age for Dairy Analyses
    Food Group Age Group
    18-27 28-37 38-47 48-57 58-67 68-77 78-99
    Men
    Milk (P1) 1.250500 1.083000 1.100400 1.000000 0.916667 0.833333 0.750000
    Cheese (P2) 0.741000 0.641333 0.667000 0.600000 0.575000 0.499000 0.370000
    Women
    Milk (P1) 1.000000 1.000000 0.999000 0.874000 0.750000 0.718750 0.750000
    Cheese (P2) 0.517000 0.470000 0.494000 0.494000 0.470000 0.379000 0.494000
    Table 5. Median Portion Size (Pk) in Pyramid Servings* per Mention by Gender and Age for Added Sugar Analyses
    Food Group Age Group
    18-27 28-37 38-47 48-57 58-67 68-77 78-99
    Men
    Soda (P1) 11.835000 9.990000 9.947000 9.683000 9.683000 9.631000 9.605000
    Fruit drinks (P2) 9.627000 8.561000 8.985000 8.194000 6.815000 5.463000 5.307000
    Doughnuts, sweet rolls, muffins (P3) 4.3080000 4.196000 3.707000 3.095000 2.897000 2.837000 2.781500
    Cookies, pie, cake, brownies (P4) 5.189000 5.027000 4.845000 4.716000 4.730000 4.428000 3.968000
    Women
    Soda (P1) 9.815000 9.683000 9.683000 9.644000 8.443500 8.370000 9.683000
    Fruit drinks (P2) 7.997000 7.876000 6.418000 6.002000 6.418000 5.116000 5.116000
    Doughnuts, sweet rolls, muffins (P3) 2.966000 2.966000 2.797000 2.966000 2.498000 2.627000 2.627000
    Cookies, pie, cake, brownies (P4) 4.133000 3.650000 3.842000 3.719000 4.027500 3.571000 3.166500
  3. For fiber (grams), estimation of b0 and b1, the model is:

    E ([Dietary Factor]1/3) = b0 + (b1[NFG1P1] + b2[NFG2P2] + … + b20[NFG20P20])

    For calcium (mg) estimation of b0 and b1, the model is:

    E ([Dietary Factor]1/4) = b0 + (b1[NFG1P1] + b2[NFG2P2] + … + b20[NFG20P20])

    For fiber and calcium, estimation of bk, k = 0, …, 20: the values for each parameter, for each gender, are in the following table:

    Table 6. Estimated Regression Coefficients for Foods as Predictors of Fiber (gm) and Calcium (mg), by Gender
    Parameter Men Women
    Fiber
    (cube root)
    Calcium
    (quarter root)
    Fiber
    (cube root)
    Calcium
    (quarter root)
    Intercept (b0) 2.015301 4.482732 1.838259 4.155762
    Cooked Cereals (b1) 0.000558 0.000318 0.000671 0.000484
    High-fiber Cereal (b2) 0.011463 0.006716 0.019873 0.006744
    Moderate-fiber cereal (b3) 0.003515 -0.000355 0.004688 0.000074
    Low-fiber cereal (b4) -0.000425 -0.002023 0.001493 -0.001305
    Milk (b5) 0.000180 0.002204 0.000169 0.002580
    Regular Soda (b6) 0.000043 0.000089 --- 0.000095
    Fruit Drinks (b7) 0.000141 0.000105 0.000115 0.000326
    Fruit juice (b8) 0.000166 0.000123 0.000229 0.000195
    Fruit (b9) 0.000985 0.000170 0.001009 0.000264
    Salad (b10) -0.000447 -0.000938 --- -0.000723
    French fries (b11) 0.001517 0.001159 0.001381 0.000414
    Other potatoes (b12) 0.000720 0.000349 0.000693 0.000489
    Dried beans (b13) 0.002156 0.000511 0.003217 0.001035
    Other vegetables (b14) 0.000899 0.000400 0.000925 0.000396
    Tomato sauce (b15) 0.001315 0.000948 0.001204 0.000287
    Salsa (b16) 0.003632 0.002179 0.003239 0.002679
    Whole grain bread (b17) 0.002927 0.000406 0.003401 0.000680
    Doughnuts, sweet rolls, muffins (b18) 0.000979 0.001198 0.001683 0.001873
    Cookies, pie, cake, brownies (b19) 0.001006 0.001771 0.001377 0.002451
    Cheese (b20) 0.001206 0.014186 0.000513 0.015442
  4. For Pyramid servings of fruits and vegetables, estimation of b0 and b1, the model is:

    E ([Dietary Factor]1/2) = b0 + b1 ([NFG1P1 + NFG2P2 + … + NFG9P9]1/2)

    For Pyramid servings of fruits and vegetables, including and excluding French fries, for each gender, the estimates of the parameters are:

    Table 7a. Estimated Regression Coefficients for Sum of Foods Predicting Servings of Total Fruits and Vegetables and Fruits and Vegetables Excluding French Fries, by Gender
    Parameter Men Women
    Summary Variable with French fries
    Intercept (b0) 0.704319 0.658819
    b1 0.835532 0.796243
    Summary Variable excluding French fries
    Intercept (b0) 0.729653 0.639540
    b1 0.822694 0.804796
  5. For cups of fruits and vegetables (2005 MyPyramid definition), including and excluding French fries, for each gender, the estimates of the parameters are:
    Table 7b. Estimated Regression Coefficients for Sum of Foods Predicting Cups of Total Fruits and Vegetables and Fruits and Vegetables Excluding French Fries, by Gender
    Parameter Men Women
    Summary Variable with French fries
    Intercept (b0) 0.529258 0.502480
    b1 0.839721 0.792683
    Summary Variable excluding French fries
    Intercept (b0) 0.559458 0.495205
    b1 0.819797 0.794978
  6. For Pyramid servings of dairy, estimation of b0 and b1, the model is:

    E ([Dietary Factor]1/2) = b0 + b1 ([NFG1P1 + NFG2P2]1/2)

    For Pyramid servings of dairy, for each gender, the estimates of the parameters are:

    Table 8. Estimated Regression Coefficients for Sum of Foods Predicting Servings of Dairy, by Gender
    Parameter Men Women
    Intercept (b0) 0.417414 0.385301
    b1 0.831739 0.782852
  7. For Pyramid teaspoons of added sugar, estimation of b0 and b1, the model is:

    E ([Dietary Factor]1/3) = b0 + b1 ([NFG1P1 + NFG2P2 + … + NFG4P4]1/3)

    For Pyramid teaspoons of added sugar, for each gender, the estimates of the parameters are:

    Table 9. Estimated Regression Coefficients for Sum of Foods Predicting Teaspoons of Added Sugar, by Gender
    Parameter Men Women
    Intercept (b0) 1.672746 1.591494
    b1 0.534485 0.491231

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* Using 1992 Food Guide Pyramid definitions of servings.

** Using 2005 MyPyramid definitions of cups of fruits and vegetables.

Last Modified: 11 Apr 2014