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Validation Studies of the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire/College Alumnus Questionnaire (CAQ)

Resnicow et al. 2003

See reference #21

Methods
Relationship between modified Paffenbarger (Paf) Walking Items (and 3 other questionnaires) and Estimated VO2 max and BMI (Pearson Correlations)
Sample
138-African-American men and women (78% female) in the Healthy Body/Healthy Spirit Trial; 21-68 years of age
Summary Results
  VO2 BMI
Paf Walking Items--Males
-City blocks walked -0.03 0.29
-Pace of walking 0.02 0.06
-flights of stairs climbed 0.13 -0.25
-minutes walking per day 0.32 -0.21
Paf Walking Items--Females
-City blocks walked -0.06 0.11
-Pace of walking 0.01 0.00
-flights of stairs climbed 0.12 0.03
-minutes walking per day 0.02 0.12

all values NS

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Bonnefoy et al. 2001

See reference #39

Methods
Relationships between CAQ items and DLW and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) (Pearson and Spearman’s Correlation coefficients)
Sample
19 men; mean age 73.4 ± 4.1 years
Summary Results
  DLW-TEE VO2 max
CAQ:
-walking -0.32(-0.32) -0.28(-0.21)
-stairs -0.18(-0.02) -0.19(0.01)
-total activity 0.39(0.37) 0.21(0.17)

all ns
Spearman’s correlation coefficients in parenthesis

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Singh et al. 2001

See reference #51

Methods
Relationships between PAQ and 7-d activity recalls, pedometer readings, treadmill test
Sample
165 black (118 female) Seventh-day Adventists; mean age female: 50 (15) years, male: 47 (14) years
Summary Results
This article states the PA questionnaire used is the same as that used in the Singh 1996 validation study (which does appear to be the Paffenbarger). But in fact, the two questionnaires (which are provided in both articles) don’t appear to be the same; and the Singh 2001 version does not ask specific walking questions.

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Bassett et al. 2000

See reference #52

Methods
Relationship between measurements of daily walking distance on the CAQ and a pedometer ANOVA
Sample
48 men (mean age 40.9 ± 11.2 years) and 48 women (mean age 39 ± 11.5 years); 4% African American 92% Caucasian
Summary Results
Physical Activity Index (PAI) and Walking measures from CAQ
  W S PAI pedometer
Men
-MET min/wk 471±297 101±104 1656±1008 1223*±473
-kcals/ wk 677±442 142±148 2387±1487 1772*±714
Women
-MET min/wk 398±308 59±56 1318±1195 1317*±516
-kcals/ wk 433±326 61±54 1445±1359 1445*±513
All subjects
-MET min/wk 435±303 80±86 1487±1113 1270*±494
-kcals/ wk 555±405 101±118 1916±1490 1608*±640

W = walking
S = stairs
* significant difference between CAQ and pedometer (p = 0.0001)

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Gregg et al. 1999

See reference #31

Methods
Relation of recent PA from CAQ and Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessment of bone (Speed of sound (SOS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and bone mineral density (BMD) (ANOVA)
Sample
393 women; 45-53 years of age
Summary Results
  Recent Physical Activity
BUA:
Z score 0.11
p-value 0.03
SOS:
Z score 0.12
p-value 0.001
Femoral Neck BMD:
Z score 0.11
p-value 0.001

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Singh et al. 1996

See reference #53

Methods
Relationship between selected CAQ items and components of the CAQ Physical Activity Index (PAI) and maximal treadmill time (Partial correlation coefficients)
Sample
56 Adventists Males (AM), 59 Non-Adventist (NM) males, 56 Adventist females (AF) and 34 non- Adventist females (NF) mean age approximately 52 years
Summary Results
  AM NM AF NF
Pace 0.10 0.00 0.16 0.39**
PAI:
Stairs (MET/min/wk) 0.25 0.08 0.14 0.08
Blocks (MET/min/wk) 0.16 0.10 -0.07 0.22
Speed <3mph 0.01 -0.07 -0.07 0.01

** p < 0.05

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Ainsworth et al. 1993

See reference #54

Methods
Relationships between CAQ items, the CAQ Physical Activity Index -PAI and PA record items, Caltrac, VO2 max, %BF (Age-adjusted correlations)
Sample
28 men and 50 women; 21-59 years of age
Summary Results
CAQ Items Stairs City Blocks PAI
PA Record
-stairs 0.79** 0.09 0.17
-city blocks 0.06 0.34** 0.24*
Caltrac
-kcals/dy -0.00 0.17 0.17
-Caltrac METs/d 0.07 0.21 0.29
VO2 max 0.17 0.16 0.60**
%BF 0.22 -0.12 -0.44**

* p <0.05   ** p <0.01

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Rauh et al. 1992

See reference #12

Methods
Relationship between items on the CAQ and Caltrac (Pearson correlations)
Sample
45 Latino (Spanish/English-speaking) adults, 53% male; mean age 33 years
Summary Results
CAQ:
Flights climbed 0.11
Blocks walked 0.02
Kcals/wk 0.34*

* p < 0.05

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Jacobs et al. 1993

See reference #10

Methods
Relationships between CAQ items (Physical Activity Index-PAI, Stairs and City blocks) and VO2 max, % body fat (%BF), Caltrac accelerometer (CAL) and 4 wk activity history (FWH) (Spearman correlations)
Sample
28 men and 50 women-Caucasian-20-59 years of age.
Summary Results
CAQ Items Stairs City Blocks PAI
VO2 0.02 -0.01 0.52*
%BF -0.14 0.00 -0.30*
Caltrac -0.01 0.16 0.30
FWH 0.25 0.08 0.31

* p < 0.05

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Washburn et al. 1990

See reference #55

Methods
Relationships between CAQ (Harvard Alumni Activity Survey-HAAS) scores and self-report sweat hours per week, BMI and HDL cholesterol (Pearson correlation coefficients)
Sample
732 randomly selected adults; 25 to 65 years
Summary Results
  HAAS scores
Sweat hrs/week 0.24**
Sweat hrs # 0.23**
Log sweat hr/wk 0.39**
Log sweat hrs/wk # 0.38**
BMI -0.08
HDL cholesterol -0.07

HAAS# and BMI r = -0.09*
HAAS# and HDL-C r = -0.13*

* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01  
# Partial correlation adjusted for sex and age

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Siconolfi et al. 1985

See reference #56

Methods
Relationship between Paffenbarger Physical Activity Index-PAI, and VO2 max and sweating (correlation coefficients)
Sample
36 men (mean age 41 years) and 32 women (mean age 42 years)
Summary Results
PAI: Total Men Women
VO2 max 0.29* 0.26 0.08
Sweat 0.57** 0.54** 0.60**

* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01

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Laport et al. 1983

See reference #57

Methods
Relationship between the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Index-PAI, and Large Scale Integrated activity monitor (correlation coefficients)
Sample
76 post-menopausal women; 44-74 years of age
Summary Results
R = 0.23
p < 0.05

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Last Modified: 11 Apr 2014