Authors: Slesinski MJ, Subar AF, Kahle LL
Title: Dietary intake of fat, fiber and other nutrients is related to the use of vitamin and mineral supplements in the United States: the 1992 National Health Interview Survey.
Journal: J Nutr 126(12):3001-8
Date: 1996 Dec
Abstract: Supplement intake is hypothesized to increase the risk of some diseases while decreasing the risk of others. Both diet and lifestyle behaviors, however, may be associated with supplement use and confound observed associations. Nutrient intake from a food frequency questionnaire, demographic characteristics and lifestyle among supplement users and nonusers were examined in 11,643 adults who participated in the 1992 National Health Interview Survey Epidemiology Supplement. Forty-six percent reported taking a supplement in the past year; 24% reported daily use. Daily use was highest among women, whites, those 75 y of age or older, those at or above the poverty level, those with more than 12 y of education, former smokers, and light drinkers consuming less than one alcoholic beverage per week. When controlled for sociodemographic factors, smoking status and drinking habits, there were no significant (P < 0.01) differences in dietary nutrient intake between daily and occasional supplement users. Compared with those of nonusers, diets of vitamin supplement users were lower (P < 0.001) in fat and higher in fiber and vitamins A and C for both men and women and higher in vitamin E and calcium for women only. In general, diet, demographic and lifestyle characteristics of supplement users are typical of patterns associated with low risk of chronic disease.