Authors: Yabroff KR, Mangan P, Mandelblatt J
Title: Effectiveness of interventions to increase Papanicolaou smear use.
Journal: J Am Board Fam Pract 16(3):188-203
Date: 2003 May-Jun
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Many women fail to adhere to Papanicolaou smear screening guidelines. Although many interventions have been developed to increase screening, the effectiveness of different types of interventions is unclear. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of interventions to increase Papanicolaou smear use published between 1980 and April 2001 and included concurrently or randomized controlled studies with defined outcomes. Interventions were classified as targeted to patients, providers, patients and providers, or health care systems and as behavioral, cognitive, sociologic, or a combination based on the expected action of the intervention. Effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each intervention. RESULTS: Forty-six studies with 63 separate interventions were included. Most interventions increased Papanicolaou smear use, although in many cases the increase was not statistically significant. Behavioral interventions targeted to patients (eg, mailed or telephone reminders) increased Papanicolaou smear use by up to 18.8%; cognitive and sociologic interventions were only marginally effective, although a single culturally specific, sociologic intervention using a lay health worker increased use by 18.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.6, 28.4). Provider-targeted interventions were heterogeneous. Interventions that targeted both patients and providers did not appear to be any more effective than interventions targeted to either patients or providers alone. One of the most effective interventions, which introduced a system change by integrating a nurse-practitioner and offered same-day screening, increased screening by 32.7% (95% CI: 20.5, 44.9). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, most interventions increased Papanicolaou smear use, although there was tremendous variability in their effectiveness. Selection of intervention strategies will depend on provider and patient population characteristics and feasibility of implementation.
Last Modified: 03 Sep 2013